Experimental studies have used the image-word-interference paradigm (PWI) to study the treatment of syntactic characteristics in speech production. The paradigm PWI (z.B. Glaser, 1992; see MacLeod, 1991 for a review) has been frequently used to study the process of language production. Schriefers (1993) presented the participants with colorful images, while a distracting word, whose grammaticolic sex was either congruous or incongruous with that of the target image, was superimposed on the image. Participants were asked to name the target images with non-no phrases, while the deterrences were ignored. The experiment was conducted in Dutch with native Dutch speakers. In Dutch, there are two grammatical gender categories: neutral sex and common sex. The results of the study showed that participants were faster in the designation of images when the grammatical sex of distraction (z.B. « dak, » « Dachneuter ») matched that of the name of the target image (p.B « Boek, » Bookneuter) than an incongruous state with a deterrent (z.B » table « , table). This also applied to the names of the adjective article (z.B. `het groene boek,` the green paper) and simple adjective names (z.B. `groene boek`, green paper) productions.
The difference in the designation of latenzen has been called the « sexual asymmetry effect, » and this effect has also been observed in Dutch in some production of nominated items (z.B »tafel, » the table) (van Berkum, 1997; La Heij et al., 1998; Schiller and Caramazza, 2003; Starreveld and La Heij, 2004; Schiller, 2013), in Nov-Wortnamen (Schriefers and Teruel, 2000; Schiller and Caramazza, 2003), Chinese (Wang et al., 2006); Zhang and Liu, 2009), Konso (Tsegaye, 2017; Tsegaye et al., unpublished), Croatian (Costa et al., 2003) and Czech (Bordag and Pechmann, 2008). Bock, J. K., Miller C. A. (1991). Agreement broken. Cognitive Psychology, 23, 45-93. Carpenter, P. A., Miyake, A., Just, M. A. (1994).
Working memory constraints in understanding: evidence of individual differences, aphasia and aging. In M. A. Gemsbacher (Ed.), Manual of Psycholinguistics (p. 1075-1122). San Diego: The academic press. However, some issues concerning the treatment of grammatical sex in linguistic production remain unresolved. First, it seems that grammatical sex is not chosen in the production of a simple nomuns if it is not necessary for production in Dutch and Chinese, but chosen in Italian and konso (Tsegaye et al., 2013; Tsegaye, 2017; Tsegaye et al., unpublished) bare Name production. Further evidence is needed to confirm to Cubelli et al. (2005) that the discrepancy is attributed to the complexity of the morphological structure of the target language.
The use of a language other than Italian and Konso, which has a complex morphological structure, would shed light on this issue. Second, the Study in Chinese provides evidence of the automatic activation of the lexico-syntician function, i.e. the classic, in the production of a nomun. To our knowledge, no direct evidence has been made to ascertain whether the grammatical characteristic is the same. Third, few studies have studied the mode of activation between a word and its syntactic function to determine when and how lexico-syntaxic function is activated in speech production. Aspects of grammatical morphology in Brocas and Wernicke`s aphasia were obtained under controlled conditions in three linguistic groups: English, Italian and German. The results indicate that the distinction between agramism and paragramism does not work well for rich pennies. Language reports of closed layer morphology were also maintained in non-fluid patients, with much more morphology produced by German and Italian patients. German and Italian patients were also much more likely to equip the article before subtantives- despite or perhaps due to the fact that articles in these languages are more complex and informative.
Although patients assigned the right article most of the time, there were a significant number of article errors (i.e.